The Maternal Ancestry mtDNA test is ideal for individuals who wish to trace the ancestry of their direct maternal lineage (mother’s, mother’s, mother’s…. Maternal lineage). mtDNA is unique because it is passed down unchanged from a mother to all of her children (sons and daughters), however, only daughters will pass the mtDNA down to the next generation. All individuals who descended from the same maternal lineage will have exactly the same mtDNA profile. Any two individuals who do not have the same mtDNA profile can conclusively conclude that they are not from the same maternal lineage.
Yes, both males and females inherit mtDNA from their mother, so both males and females can take this test.
If the siblings have the same mother, then only one sibling needs to take the test since the mother will pass down exactly the same mtDNA to all of her children.
The mtDNA contains 3 regions, namely HVR1, HVR2, and Coding Regions. Testing only the HVR1 and HVR2 regions will allow you to use the search and comparison database and also allows you to determine which mtDNA Haplogroup you belong to. Testing all three regions of the mtDNA (HVR1, HVR2, and Coding regions) will increase the stringency of comparisons between individuals and allows you to determine which mtDNA Subclade you belong to (subclades are finer branches in the mtDNA phylogenetic tree). Individuals who have tested only their HVR1 and HVR2 regions can test their Coding region at a later date if required.
Your mtDNA will be tested using Sanger Sequencing technology to uncover the entire length of the DNA region tested. Sequencing reads the entire length of the DNA in detail as opposed to DNA chips which only target specific single points in the DNA. The HVR1 test includes sequencing the entire length between regions 16001 to 16569, the HVR2 test includes sequencing the entire length between regions 1 to 400, and the Coding region test includes sequencing the entire length between regions 401 to 16000. Your entire DNA sequencing raw data will be provided to you along with a table showing your mutations within the regions tested.