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Autosomal DNA and its Applications: Part 3, Applications of Autosomal DNA

This tutorial is Part 3 of a 3 part series
Part 1, Autosomal DNA 101  
Part 2, Inheritance pattern of Autosomal DNA
Part 3, Applications of Autosomal DNA  <<== You are here


What is Autosomal DNA Profiling?

Autosomal DNA Profiling, also known as "DNA Fingerprinting", usually refers to the testing of STR (short tandem repeat) markers found in Autosomal DNA.

STRs are short fragments of DNA, usually 2 to 6 base pairs in length which are repeated over and over again in a defined location of the autosomal DNA.  The length of the repeats can vary from person to person, and is inherited within the autosomal chromosome.  

Examining autosomal STRs

During DNA fingerprinting, a panel of known STRs locations (locus, plural loci) are tested to examine the number of repeats "alleles" at each locus.  Since each individual has two copies of each autosomal chromosome, each locus will show two possible "alleles".  

An example is locus D5S818 which is found on chromosome #5.  

D5S818 is known to have repeats ranging from 7 to 17.  After testing an individual, the results will show two values, ie 9, 11.  That means that the individual inherited a 9 from one parent and an 11 from the other parent.

When a panel of different autosomal STR markers are examined, the results are known as a "DNA Profile" or "DNA Fingerprint".

About the technology used

The autosomal DNA test is performed using the Identifiler System from Applied Biosystems.  The Identifiler system is a premium Autosomal DNA test which examines 15 Autosomal STR loci which includes 13 core CODIS loci.  Identifiler has been validated and certified to TWGDAM guidelines for forensic and identity casework and is recognized worldwide for database studies.  The validation certificate for Identifiler can be downloaded from this link.

We offer two test panels.  Panel 1 is the Identifiler system from Applied Biosystems and consists of 15 STR loci.  Panel 2 is the FFFL System from Applied Biosystems and consists of an additional 4 STR loci and can be added to Panel 1 to increase the power of discrimination.  The table below lists the markers included in each panel:
 

  Locus Designation Repeat motif 
(ISFG format)
CODIS loci
Panel 1 CSF1PO [TAGA]n Yes
FGA [CTTT]n Yes
TH01 [TCAT]n Yes
TPOX [GAAT]n Yes
VWA [TCTG][TCTA]complex Yes
D2S1338 [TGCC][TTCC]complex  
D3S1358 [TCTG][TCTA]complex Yes
D5S818 [AGAT]n Yes
D7S820 [GATA]n Yes
D8S1179 [TCTA][TCTG]complex Yes
D13S317 [TATC]n Yes
D16S539 [GATA]n Yes
D18S51 [AGAA]n Yes
D19S433 [AAGG]n  
D21S11 [TCTA][TCTG]complex Yes
Amelogenin NA (6bp deletion on X-chromosome) Yes
Panel 2 F13A1 [AAAG]n No
F13B [AAAT]n No
FES/FPS [AAAT]n No
LPL [AAAT]n No



Applications of Autosomal DNA STR testing

The unique characteristics of Autosomal DNA STRs make it a powerful tool for relationship and identity testing.  Some of the most popular applications of Autosomal STR tests are as follows:
 

Family Relationship testing

Paternity testing

To seek the biological father of a child, or to seek the biological child of a father.

Maternity testing

To seek the biological mother of a child, or to seek the biological child of a mother.

Full sibling testing

To seek the full biological sibling(s) of an individual.

Half sibling testing

To seek the half biological sibling(s) of an individual (same father only or same mother only).

Grandparentage testing

To seek the biological grandmother or grandfather of a child, or to seek the biological grandchild of a grandparent.

Aunt/Uncle testing

To seek the aunt or uncle of an individual on both the paternal and paternal lineage.

Nephew/Niece testing

To seek the nephew or niece of an individual on both the brother’s or sister’s lineage.

DNA ReunionFamily searches

To search for immediate family using the DNAReunion application.

Identity testing

Child Identification

To record your child’s DNA fingerprint as part of your child’s safety program.  In the event that a child is missing, the DNA profile will assist law enforcement to find and positively identify the lost child.

Personal identification

To record the personal DNA fingerprint of a family member for personal identification.  TheDNA profile is a personal identifier for an individual and the identification can be attached to the family tree and passed on to future generations.  DNA fingerprinting can also be used to positively identify a family member during a disaster.  Autosomal DNA testing was used for identification in a number of disasters, including 911, earthquakes, airline crashes and the USmilitary. 

Record and preserve integrity of family tree

To record and preserve the integrity of the family tree.  Every individual is connected in the family tree through a defined relationship type.  This is enforced by the autosomal DNA profile and can be handed down to further generations as proof of integrity of the relationships defined in the tree.  The DNA profile can be attached to the family tree and passed on to future generations as positive proof of relationship for future generations and to ensure ongoing integrity of the family tree, even after death.  Proof of relationship generated through autosomal STRtesting is a stronger proof of family relationships than even birth certificates.

Forensics

Matching and identification

To match the DNA found on a licked envelope, hair sample, or other forensic sample to an individual, whether living or deceased.

 
Recently, some clients have inquired about a spreadsheet called OmniPop as an additional possible application for Autosomal STR test results.  OmniPop is a 3rd party developed Excel spreadsheet.  Click here to read more about OmniPop.


DNA Reunion

DNA Reunion is an global database which allows people from around the world who have tested their DNA to search for potential close family members.  One of the key features of DNA Reunion is that it is the world's first Autosomal STR database, and allows people to search for close relatives. 

Paternal Ancestry Test

Trace your paternal line
Standard Paternal Ancestry Package (Y-DNA 20 STR Marker Test)
Trace your own ancestry on your paternal line. You may upgrade to the Advanced or Premium Package at a later date.
$119 USD
Upgrade from 20 Y-DNA STR markers to 44 Y-DNA STR markers
$99 USD
Upgrade from 20 Y-DNA STR markers to 101 Y-DNA STR markers
$239 USD
Upgrade from 44 Y-DNA STR markers to 101 Y-DNA STR markers
$169 USD
Advanced Paternal Ancestry Package (Y-DNA 44 STR Marker Test)
Trace your own ancestry on your paternal line. You may upgrade to the Premium Package at a later date.
$199 USD
Upgrade from 67 Y-DNA STR markers to 101 Y-DNA STR markers
$89 USD
Upgrade from 91 Y-DNA STR markers to 101 Y-DNA STR markers
$49 USD
Premium Paternal Ancestry Package (Y-DNA 101 STR Marker Test)
Highest resolution test for tracing your own ancestry on your paternal line.
$339 USD
Y-DNA Haplogroup Determination SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$89 USD
Y-DNA G Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA H Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA J Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA L Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA N Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA O Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA Q Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA R1a Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA R1b Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA B Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA R2 Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA C Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA F Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA K Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD
Y-DNA T Subclade SNP Test - for 1 Male Individual
$99 USD

Maternal Ancestry Test

Trace your maternal line
Standard Maternal Ancestry Package (mtDNA HVR1 Test)
Trace your own ancestry on your maternal line. You may upgrade to the Advanced or Premium Package at a later date.
$119 USD
Advanced Maternal Ancestry Package (mtDNA HVR1 + HVR2 Test)
High resolution test for tracing your own ancestry on your maternal line. You may upgrade to the Premium Package at a later date.
$189 USD
Premium Maternal Ancestry Package (mtDNA HVR1 + HVR2 + Coding Region Test)
Highest resolution test for tracing your own ancestry on your maternal line.
$528 USD
Add mtDNA HVR2 Test
$119 USD
Add mtDNA HVR2 + Coding Region Test
$428 USD
Add mtDNA Coding Region Test
$358 USD
NEED HELP?

Let our team of Dedicated Technical Support Experts help you place an order or find the right test for you!

Call us anytime at 1-877-714-6360. Laboratory hours are 8AM to 5 PM PST, 11AM to 8PM ET, Monday to Friday (except statutory holidays).

Or you can email us at support@geneancestry.com.

We want to be there for you every step of the way! If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us at any time.